Category Archives: Journal Articles

2017 Research Year in Review: Meeting the Minimum Docent Qualifications

As outlined in the Docent regulations:
“The title of docent is a nationally well known and recognised indicator of scientific and pedagogical expertise…Obtaining a docentur implies that the holder has achieved a degree of independence such that he or she can lead, supervise and evaluate research and academic instruction…‘Docent’ is an academic title that by tradition confers venia docendi, that is ‘the right to teach’ and supervise on all levels of the university; however, the institution of docentur is also rooted in scientific expertise.”
To achieve the title of docent (associate professor), there are three main criteria:

  • 5 weeks of pedagogy courses
  • 15 or more publications
    • Especially helpful is demonstrating independence i
      • e.g. not publishing with your PhD supervisor
      • e.g. being last author
  • 120 hours of classroom teaching
    • Teaching needs to be within the last 6 years
      • So all of my US teaching, where I accumulated hundreds of hours now no longer count
    • Preparing lectures, grading, etc. do not count for teaching hours
    • Teaching to undergraduate students, graduate students, and clinicians do count as teaching hours
    • Supervising master student theses also count
      • Only 60 hours of teaching can be supervision hours

In 2017, I started my second full year as a postdoc in the Department of Public Health at Karolinska Institute. However, in practice, I worked relatively little in 2017, as I took parental leave from January thru August, working only 40% during that time period.

Pedagogy Courses
I worked while on parental leave, primarily to take an online course needed for docent entitled Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (Distance). This is a full-time five-week pedagogy course that takes place online over the span of several months. It worked out really well for me, as many assignments were done individually, on my own time.

Once I came back from parental leave, I also took another online course called Open Networked Learning, which accounts for two full weeks of pedagogy. Here we learned about different open sources one can use when teaching distance courses, as well as ways to make your classroom more interactive.

Furthermore, I took the Web Course for Supervisors 2017 course. This only took a couple of hours to complete, but it went over the legal rules one must follow when directing a PhD student.

Since you need five weeks of pedagogy to become docent, and I now have over 7 weeks, I have met this criteria.

Publications
I also used my parental leave-working time to finish up a few articles, as I didn’t want to leave co-authors waiting for eight months.

As such, I was able to publish four new articles in 2017:

This brings my total publications in peer-reviewed journals to 15! Meaning that I have enough publications, barely, to apply for docent. The Head Start article marks my third sole authored paper, where now I have sole authored a qualitative paper, a quantitative paper, and a literature review/meta-synthesis. Hopefully these papers can show my ability to work independently and via using different methodologies.

Even though I was off from working for a good chunk of the year, apparently people were still reading and citing my previously published researched.

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According to ScholarGoogle, in 2016, I had a total of 116 citations, but by the end of 2017, I had 194. My h-index also increased from a 6 to a 9 and my i-index from a 5 to a 9. However, my citations for 2016 and 2017 were relatively similar with 54 and 57 citations, respectively.

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My ResearchGate numbers also increased. I now have a ResearchGate score of 23.01, which apparently means that my score is higher than 75% of other users.

In 2016, I had a total of 2310 reads, while in 2017, I had 4726 reads. Of course ResearchGate comes with plenty of caveats, such as the fact that most researchers go to the actual journals website rather than ResearchGate to find articles to read. However it’s easy to read the numbers off of ResearchGate, so that’s what I use. On this website it is clear to see that my book chapter Families and Family Policies in Sweden has a total of 1276 reads, making it by far my most read publication from ResearchGate.

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Teaching & Supervision

I was able to do a bit of teaching in 2017, especially in the fall. While I had a few hours here and there, such as in Brain Development or Sexual for Psychologists and Reproductive Health for Midwifery students, my main group of teaching hours came from giving guest lectures in the Epidemiology masters track in a course called Applied Epidemiology 3- Methods for outcome Evaluation of Public Health interventions. I gave lectures on 1) Overview of Study Design in Public Health Outcome Evaluations, 2) Planning the Evaluation, and 3) Evaluating the Implementation of a Community-wide New Father Visit at the Swedish Child Health Centers. In addition, I peer audited the course leader. I also gave a day-long lecture for all masters students in Public Health at KI (Epi + Health Economic) in a course called Theory, Practice, and Ethics.

In addition to teaching, I also supervised four midwifery students as they completed two theses. Two of these were in the spring of 2017, while the other two were in the fall of 2017.

  1. Saga Fogelström and Anna Björsson (2017). Department of Women’s and Children’s Health. Tänk om hon dör och jag blir ensam kvar: En intervjustudie över blivande pappors förlossningsrädsla (What if she dies and leaves me all alone: An interview based study of fathers’ fear of childbirth). I am a co-supervisor.
  2. Michaela Modin Asper and Nino Hallén (2017). Department of Public Health. Postpartum depression screening for fathers: A cost-benefit analysis in Stockholm Sweden. I am a co-supervisor.
  3. Emmeli Vallin and Hanna Nestander (2017). Department of Women’s and Children’s Health. Tänk om hon dör: Mäns upplevelser vid komplikationer under förlossning. (What if she dies: Men’s experiences in complications during childbirth). I am the main supervisor.
  4. Sofia Kittmark and Matias Garzon (2017). Department of Women’s and Children’s Health. Same-sex mothers’ views of the Swedish child health centers: A qualitative study. I am a co-supervisor.

The theses from Women’s and Children’s Health are worth 15 credits (10 weeks), while the one from Public Health is worth 30 credits (20 weeks) for students. The supervisor receives 15 hours of teaching for every 10 weeks of thesis work. Therefore, I have (15/2)+(30/2)+15+(15/2) = 45 hours of supervision.

Theses 2-4 are currently being revised for publication! So perhaps more news on them in the 2018 year in review 🙂

Therefore, in total, I have 62 hours of classroom teaching time, as well as 45 hours of supervision time. Thus, I am just shy of the 120 teaching hours needed for docent.

Other Events

  • I presented at the Nordic Marcé Society for Perinatal Mental Health in Stockholm. The talk was entitled Swedish Child Health Nurses’ Mental Health Support to Mothers and Fathers in 2004 and 2014.
  • My colleagues presented our research findings at Värna våra yngsta: Späda barns rätt till hälsa och utveckling in Stockholm. The talk was called Dialogsamtal med föräldrar om alkohol för att upptäcka barn i riskmiljöer.
  • I was interviewed by Alexander von Schuppler for Region Skåne’s monthly newsletter on the supports fathers want/need in the Swedish child health field.

 

 

 

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Supporting fathers in the Swedish child health field

I recently published a literature review and meta-ethnography entitled Literature review shows that fathers are still not receiving the support they want and need from Swedish child health professionals in Acta Paediatrica.

This article received a lot of attention when it was first published. For example, Sverige’s vetenskapsradio first interviewed me on the findings. Then TT picked it up, meaning that the story was in every newspaper, from national to local newspapers. Before being interviewed by a national news program, Rapport.

It was further promoted by different organizations, such as Män för Jämställdhet. And other writers/bloggers talked about it.

What was really cool was that Sven Bremberg was asked by Acta Paediatrica to write an editorial which he called Supporting fathers is essential in the child health field

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So I had my 15 minutes of fame.

Now, a year or so later, I have finally had the time to make my first video. I’ve always wanted to promote my research through videos, but haven’t had the time. I’m highly critical of the final product, both of the video and the content, but it was my first attempt and it was a fun learning experience.

In fact, as a researcher, it’s hard to see your work lose it’s nuance. I thought enough nuance was lost when publishing it, as word counts affected how many details I could say. But trying to make a 5 minute video left very little room for nuance.

What I attempted to do was to show four examples–one from each arena within the child health field: prenatal, labor & birth, postnatal, and child health centers. I wanted to show two positive examples of ways midwives and nurses support fathers and two examples where support could be improved. However the two examples of improved support are more on the organizational/managerial level, rather than critiques of midwives’/nurses’ attitudes and support given to fathers.

Perhaps future videos will be made to provide a more nuanced understanding of the support fathers receive in the different child health arenas. Until then, I have my first overview video.

Swedish Child Health Centers’ Built Environment: Do They Include Fathers?

Swedish child health centers have historically been a place for new mothers and children. We assessed 31 child health centers’ waiting rooms to see the extent to which they included images of mothers, fathers, and children. 75% did not include fathers…at all. Read the full article here.

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Background: Sweden is trying to create a gender equal country and around 97% of all families in Sweden visit the child health centers for routine check-ups, vaccinations, to monitor their child’s growth and development, and to receive parenting advice, either for their specific child’s problems or via parenting groups.

Study Design:Prior to the study, we defined what constituted a mother, father, and/or child environment (or any combination thereof).

 

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Note: None of the environments were father-mother, father-child, or father centered, so those definitions have been removed.

I then visited and took pictures of 31 child health centers throughout Sweden. I visited centers in rich and poor neighborhoods, urban and rural areas, and private and public child health centers.

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Pictures were taken of everything in their waiting room, magazine titles were written down, and all pamphlets that could be handed out to parents were collected.

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I then met up with two co-researchers, where we independently viewed the waiting room via the pictures and samples to determine if that space included the mother, father, and/or child.

The waiting room was determined to be mother, father, and/or child centered as long as at least 25% of the space consisted of that individual; leaving the last 25% to be aimed at any or all of these types of individuals (neutral items [e.g. abstract art, pictures of nature] did not count for or against any individual family member).

The messages on the bulletin boards were broken down using manifest and latent analysis using semiotic visual analysis.

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The magazine readership was sought out

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Results

31 Child Health Centers

  • 12 = Mother-Child Centered
  • 8  = Family-Centered
  • 6  = Child-Centered
  • 2  = Women-Centered
  • 3  = Neutral

The most common waiting room had lots of items for mothers (e.g. images of mothers, magazines that mothers typically read) and toys and books for children, as well as images of children, but very little or nothing for fathers.

In fact, only one category, family-centered, included fathers, while the rest were composed of mothers and/or children.

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Observations

We also observed parents, mothers and fathers, visiting the child health centers to see what they did while in the waiting room–read books, talk on their cell phone, interact with their child, talk with each other….just sit in their chair.

Mothers’ behavior did not change between environments, but fathers were more likely to play with their child and read the brochures/pamphlets if they were in a non-women centered environment (e.g. either family centered or child centered).

Conclusions: People are affected by their environments–people read in libraries, party at concerts, act posh at fine dining establishments. They don’t typically do the reverse (read at concerts and party in libraries).

The child health centers are no different. Their built environment sends messages on who’s welcomed and how they should act.

To further promote involved fathering in child health, the child health centers should rebuild their environments to be more inclusive of fathers.

To help ensure an inclusive waiting room (for all types of people), we created (in Swedish) a checklist they can use!!!

Click here or on the picture to see the full checklist.

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Swedish Child Health Nurses’ Attitude Toward Fathers

We published a qualitative article in Acta Paediatrica on how Swedish child health nurses felt about fathers coming into the child health centers. While child health nurses accepted and welcomed fathers, they did little to invite, include, or further support fathers (click here to read the full article).

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I interviewed 17 child health nurses from various places in Sweden: north, south, east, west; urban and rural; experienced and inexperienced; young and old. All child health nurses were women–Not uncommon since there are only a handful of men that are child health nurses in the whole country.

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Four themes were discussed in this article.

While child health nurses are experts on children’s health and believe that fathers are attending the child health centers more than ever; they seem to be attending in spite of rather than because of support they receive from the child health nurses.

Child health nurses say that they value mothers to a much greater extent than fathers and provide more support to mothers.

However, child health nurses are in various stages of providing more support to fathers: while some have never thought about actively involving fathers, others have tried to, but feel their hands are tied when it comes to making changes, while others have even tried to make changes (e.g. discuss with their boss about having evening and weekend hours, magazines for fathers, pictures emphasizing fathers). However, no child health nurses that were interviewed had yet made any real changes.

downloadConclusion: If we want mothers and fathers to be equal parents, fathers will need to be accepted and encouraged to participate, just like mothers.

The Swedish child health centers provide great child development advice, host parenting groups, are seen as parenting experts, and are appreciated throughout Sweden.

For example, their services benefit parents…mothers.

The extra support mothers receive aides mothers in continuing to raise their child, at least as far as their child’s health in concerned, since she is the parenting expert because she receives the most support and is the most welcome at the child health centers.

Changing routine practices at the child health centers to further promote and support fathers will aid Sweden’s goal of becoming a gender equal country.

Head Start Preschool Teacher Retention

I recently published an article in Early Childhood Research Quarterly (the best early childhood education journal) showing the factors that can predict Head Start preschool teachers quitting their employment across the first half of the school year (click here to read the published article).

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Study Design: Ten Head Start centers in one major Midwest city were recruited to participate (170 total preschool teachers). Head Start preschool teachers with two years or less of experience, were asked to complete a 16-item questionnaire, as well as a demographics questionnaire at the beginning of the school year (n = 65 participating preschool teachers).

In January, half-way through the school year, I learned from the Center Directors who had continued teaching and who had quit. I then compared the scores of those who stayed and those who quit for any differences.

Results:
Preschool teachers came from a variety of backgrounds, according to the demographic questionnaire–different races, ages, work experiences, education, etc. There were also some differences between lead and assistant preschool teachers (see full article). However, all but one of the participants were female.

Huge Turnover Rates:

  • 48% of all Head Start teachers were newly hired (within the last two years)!
  • 36% of newly hired teachers quit during the first half of the school year!

Salary:
The preschool teachers’ salary was not a contributing factor to their quitting their job. In fact, on a one-to-seven scale, preschool teachers who stayed rated their salary as a 3.9, while those who quit rated theirs as a 3.7 (statistically identical)–and both are just above the middle (3.5 out of 7), suggesting that both stayers and quitters think their salary is adequate.

Five factors differed between those who stayed and those who quit:

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Preschool teachers were more likely to quit if they:

  1. did not want to stay teaching in the early childhood education (ECE) field
  2. were not happy
  3. had a bad relationship with their supervisor
  4. did not like their work environment
  5. had a lower education

In addition, the more factors that an individual teacher possessed the more likely they were to quit (e.g. if they did not want to stay in ECE AND were not happy AND did not like their supervisor AND did not like their work environment AND had a low education).

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While those preschool teachers who kept teaching, either did not have any or had only one of these five risk factors.

Conclusion: Preschool teacher turnover affects child outcomes, the quality of the preschool program, the teachers who continue teaching, and those who feel they need to quit their job.

Interventions should use this information to tailor their programs, so that fewer preschool teachers quit their job; yielding positive outcomes for children, parents, the school, and the teachers.

Father & Mother Attendance at a Parent Support Program

We recently published a paper that looks at why mothers and fathers attend a parent support program–in this case, Triple P – Positive Parenting Program in the Scandinavian Journal of Public Health (Click here to read the published article).

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Most research on this topic looks at parents in general, and some only on mothers. Fathers however come much less often to parent support programs compared to mothers–so we wondered why that might be?

The intervention: The program was offered free-of-charge to all parents in one community in Sweden. We then looked at the background factors of mothers and fathers who attended compared to those who did not attend to see if there were any differences.

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Results: Turns out that mothers are much more likely to attend the program if they perceive their child as having behavior problems, while fathers were approaching significance of attending if they perceived their child as having emotional problems.

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Future research should look further into various background factors to see how to increase rates of other minority groups, such as those who are not native to the country the program is held in or those parents with less education.

Marketing Strategies:
Since it is the goal of public health ventures, like parent support programs, to reach as much of the population as possible, direct and specific marketing methods should be employed, rather than marketing to parents–since parents, based on their gender, have different needs.

Future research can better target parents via marketing/advertising strategies that appeal to the parents’ needs. In other words, if you only market for improving children’s behavior problems, you can expect more mothers to come to the program than father, since they are more likely to perceive that as an issue.

 

Child behaviour problems, parenting behaviours and parental adjustment in mothers and fathers in Sweden

Publishing aScreen Shot 2014-07-09 at 1.59.00 PM peer-reviewed article is always important in the academic world. Not only do you get to promote yourself and your abilities, but more importantly, you get to promote your findings. Better still would be for someone to pick up your work and institute change based on your findings.

It is our hope that Swedish politicians and bureaucrats take heed of the messages within this article, and further help in providing needed support to parents who struggle with child behavior problems.

Raziye Salari was the lead author on a paper entitled Child behaviour problems, parenting behaviours and parental adjustment in mothers and fathers in Sweden. Anna Sarkadi and myself were co-authors.

The article is published in the Scandinavian Journal of Public Health.

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The abstract and link to the full article can also be found on my researchgate page.

Main message:

Although Sweden is seen as a country that promotes parenting and has lots of family policies to encourage strong parent-child relationships, parents in Sweden still may struggle with child behavioral issues. Therefore, support for these parents is still needed and warranted.

To see the abstract, click here (or read below):

Aims: We aim to examine the relationship between child behavioural problems and several parental factors, particularly parental behaviours as reported by both mothers and fathers in a sample of preschool children in Sweden.

Methods: Participants were mothers and fathers of 504 3- to 5-year-olds that were recruited through preschools. They completed a set of questionnaires including the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, Parenting
Scale, Parent Problem Checklist, Dyadic Adjustment Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale.

Results: Correlational analyses showed that parent-reported child behaviour problems were positively associated with ineffective parenting practices and interparental conflicts and negatively related to parental competence. Regression analyses showed that, for both mothers and fathers, higher levels of parental over-reactivity and interparental conflict over child-rearing issues and lower levels of parental satisfaction were the most salient factors in predicting their reports of disruptive child behaviour.

Conclusions: This study revealed that Swedish parents’ perceptions of their parenting is related to their ratings of child behaviour problems which therefore implies that parent training programs can be useful in addressing behavioural problems in Swedish children.

 

Now I can officially call myself a public health researcher!